Automatic Street Light  as the name suggests is for turning ON and OFF the lamp automatically without the need of human interventions. It senses the light intensity from surroundings and find whether its day or night. And it automatically turns ON when the surrounding is dark and it turns OFF when it receives light from surroundings. A sensor called LDR is used to detect the light intensity. This project finds wide outdoor applications in streets, gardens and public places where it finds difficulty to appoint a person to operate the lights.


  • Light Dependent Resistor (LDR)
  • LM358 Op-Amp
  • Resistor 22KΩ
  • Resistor 10KΩ
  • Preset 10KΩ
  • BC547 transistor
  • 1N4148 diode
  • 12V Relay


The brain behind this circuit is the LM358 IC which acts as a comparator in this particular design. Let’s look into it briefly before we dive deeper. The LM358 is an operational amplifier (Op Amp) IC. This IC consist two operational amplifiers which can bear a voltage between 3.3V to 32V and it has a really low supply current drain of 500μA. The IC looks internally like the image below:


If the Op-amp is the brain of our circuit, then LDR is the sensory organ. Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) or Photo resistor is a light controlled resistor. Its resistance decreases with increase in light intensity and vice versa. Actually, when light is incident on the LDR then the semiconductor absorbs the photons of light and the bonded electrons jump to conduction band and the resistance decreases due to photoconduction. 


Relays are simple electronics components that allow you to switch a high load using only a single pin on your board.

On the inside of a relay there is a coil that’s connected to the input signal. Every time the input signal switches on, the current flowing through the coil induces a magnetic field that closes a contact.

On the output side you have three pins: common (COM), normally open (NO) and normally closed (NC). Connect COM and one of NO and NC in series with your load. When the input turns on, NO is connected to COM and when the input turns off, NC is connected to COM.


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