IOT BASED REAL-TIME RESIDENTIAL ENERGY METER MONITORING SYSTEM
IoT-based applications are becoming more popular and provide effective solutions for many real time problems. In this research, real-time monitoring system for residential energy meter is proposed. The presented system provides ubiquitous and continuous access to energy consumption to the consumer by exploiting the advancement of IoT technology. The proposed system is cost effective as it requires a simple upgrade on the existing meters than complete replacement. Further, it is light weight and compact with the usage of SoC for control and communication. Through the experimental analysis, it is found that from the collected data, it is possible to obtain the pattern of consumption as well as faultiness present in the existing system. The presented work can also be extended to large scale from which load distributed in the area can be estimated so that the system can be strengthened to enhance performance.
SMART TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM USING IOT
Nowadays the concept of smart cities became more popular. The evolution of internet of things (IoT) helps the idea of smart city more achievable. A major branch of smart city is smart transportation. Problems such as traffic congestion, road safety, accident detection, automatic fare collection and limited car parking facilities can be resolved by IoT. In this paper, an IoT based smart parking system along with an intelligent signboard is proposed. The smart parking system composed of intelligent sensors deployed on site and are used to monitor and inform the availability of parking spaces. A mobile or internet application can be provided to check the availability of parking slot. The sign board with distance to that place, weather condition, temperature and different routes to those places.
IOT BASED SMART GARBAGE ALERT SYSTEM USING ARDUINO UNO
Waste management is one of the primary problem that the world faces irrespective of the case of developed or developing country. The key issue in the waste management is that the garbage bin at public places gets overflowed well in advance before the commencement of the next cleaning process. It in turn leads to various hazards such as bad odour& ugliness to that place which may be the root cause for spread of various diseases. To avoid all such hazardous scenario and maintain public cleanliness and health this work is mounted on a smart garbage system. The main theme of the work is to develop a smart intelligent garbage alert system for a proper garbage management. This paper proposes a smart alert system for garbage clearance by giving an alert signal to the municipal web server for instant cleaning of dustbin with proper verification based on level of garbage filling. This process is aided by the ultrasonic sensor which is interfaced with Arduino UNO to check the level of garbage filled in the dustbin and sends the alert to the municipal web server once if garbage is filled. After cleaning the dustbin, the driver confirms the task of emptying the garbage with the aid of RFID Tag. RFID is a computing technology that is used for verification process and in addition, it also enhances the smart garbage alert system by providing automatic identification of garbage filled in the dustbin and sends the status of clean-up to the server affirming that the work is done. The whole process is upheld by an embedded module integrated with RF ID and IOT Facilitation. The real time status of how waste collection is being done could be monitored and followed up by the municipality authority with the aid of this system. In addition to this the necessary remedial / alternate measures could be adapted. An Android application is developed and linked to a web server to intimate the alerts from the microcontroller to the urban office and to perform the remote monitoring of the cleaning process, done by the workers, thereby reducing the manual process of monitoring and verification. The notifications are sent to the Android application using Wi-Fi module.
IOT GARBAGE MONITORING WITH WEIGHT SENSING
Keeping the city clean has been always an ongoing task which needs laborious efforts of people working on ground level emptying the garbage bins whenever they are full. The event of garbage bin getting full is not strictly dependent on a time pattern, instead it sometimes becomes rapidly full or sometimes requires more than normal time to become full. IOT Garbage Monitoring with Weight Sensing project is an innovative step towards making this process more smooth and efficient.
This system monitors the garbage bins and informs about the level of garbage collected in the garbage bins via a web page. For this the system uses ultrasonic sensors placed over the bins to detect the garbage level and compare it with the garbage bins depth. In addition, we also have weight sensors attached below the garbage bins. Thus the system sends over the internet the level of fill of the garbage bins as well as the weight of the fill of the garbage bins. The advantage of this combo sensing is that the garbage bin lifting weight can also be known by the authorities. If the garbage bin is not filled up, but still the weight of fill has reached the limit of what the garbage lifting vehicles can pick up, the vehicles can be immediately driven towards that bin for evacuation. The system makes use of AVR family microcontroller, LCD screen, Wifi modem for sending data and a buzzer. The system is powered by a 12V transformer. The LCD screen is used to display the status of the level and weight of garbage collected in the bins. Whereas a web page is built to show the status to the user monitoring it. The web page gives a graphical view of the garbage bins and highlights the garbage collected in colour in order to show the level of garbage collected. Also the weight of the individual bins will get displayed along with the level of the garbage bin. The LCD screen shows the status of the garbage level. The system puts on the buzzer when the level of garbage collected crosses the set limit. Thus this system helps to keep the city clean by informing about the garbage levels of the bins by providing graphical image of the bins via IOT Gecko web development platform
IOT SMART ENERGY GRID.
Smart Grid and Internet of Things (IoT) are the latest trends respectively in the domains of Power Engineering and Computer Science. The amalgamation of the two presents enormous potential to improve the efficiency, security and reliability of the power grid. In this paper, the authors review existing solutions and propose their ideas, as an improvement over existing techniques to realise the idea of a Smart Grid and a competitive Energy market by application of Mathematical and Statistical tools to analyse and predict load demand as well as agent behaviour in the present scenario.
BIOMETRIC ATTENDANCE SYSTEM OVER IOT
Authentication systems are used to verify the identity of a person and provide authorization for access. with the in creased number of Internet enabled devices in the modern world, reliable authentication is crucial for secure access in networked environments, Hence, a secure and reliable biometric authentication system based on IOT is proposed in this paper. The proposed biometric authentication scheme is based on iris recognition, as it provides better Accuracy and security, compared to other biometrics. In most authentication systems, user credentials are compared with locally stored database. It becomes in secure and inconvenient due 10 the physical access provided by local storage, and it is vulnerable to attacks or tampering, To mitigate this, IoT is used in the proposed system., The proposed scheme is developed and implemented as an embedded system, for secure employee authentication. Authentication is done using employee database andwhich is an adequately secured one that contains validated data of all citizens in India. The system developed is found to be superior in terms of security and reliability, compared to existing systems.
IOT GAS PIPE LEAKAGE DETECTOR INSECT ROBOT
Gas pipes play very important roles for cities, industries and thus in growing economies. So gas leakages lead to losses as well as are a threat because they can also lead to fire accidents. Placing sensors at each section of pipe is very costly. So here we propose an innovative robot that clings on to the outer surface of the gas pipe and moves with the pipe to check for leakages. The robot consists of gas sensor that is used to detect gas leakages. As the robot keeps moving along the metal pipe it keeps monitoring for any gas leakage, On detection it uses an interface gps sensor to transmit location of th leakage detected over to the IOT login system, Here we use IOTgecko to receive and display the gas leakage alert and location over IOT. Thus we have a fully automated insect like robot that moves with the gas pipe and detects gas leakages instantly at a low budget.
IOT IRRIGATION MONITORING & CONTROLLER SYSTEM
Farmers usually work on large portions of land to grow different types of crops. It is not always possible for one person to be able to keep track of the entire farmland all the time. Sometimes it may happen that a given patch of land receives more water leading to water-logging, or it might receive far less or no water at all leading to dry soil. In either of the cases, the crops can get damaged and farmer may suffer losses.
So in order to solve this problem, we propose an “IOT Irrigation Monitoring and Control Project”. This is a very useful project wherein, the user can monitor and control the supply of water from a remote location. This system makes use of a concept called IOT (Internet of Things). So for our project, we connect our system to the internet using a Wi-Fi module. We use an Arduino Uno board to send the control signals and to connect to our desired website.
On the website, two things are displayed.
The circuit keeps checking the moisture content of the soil by means of a moisture sensor, and updates the “Moisture level” on the website. The user can then check the current moisture level from a remote location and control the water supply. For this, the user only has to toggle the “Motor status” from ‘ON-OFF’ or ‘OFF-ON’; and the “water pump” will be ‘turned ON’ or ‘turned OFF’ accordingly. Thus the ‘soil-moisture’ gets monitored and the ‘water supply’ can be controlled just by the toggling the “Motor status”. So the user doesn’t have to worry about his crops or plants getting damaged due to ‘water-logging’ or ‘drought’.
This system can also be useful for people having small gardens, while it may not be possible for a person to be continuously present at his/her garden but one can use this project to keep a track of ‘soil-moisture’ and ensure proper water supply even from a distance.
IEEE – 2018/2019 POWER ELECTRONICS AND DRIVES TITLES:
The electricity requirements of the world including India are increasing at alarming rate and the power demand has been running ahead of supply. It is also now widely recognized that the fossil fuels (i.e., coal, petroleum and natural gas) and other conventional resources, presently being used for generation of electrical energy, may not be either sufficient or suitable to keep pace with ever increasing demand of the electrical energy of the world. Also generation of electrical power by cold based steam power plant or nuclear power plants causes pollution, which is likely to be more acute in future due to large generating capacity on one side and greater awareness of the people in this respect. The recent severe energy crisis has forced the world to develop new and alternative methods of power generation, which could not be adopted so far due to various reasons . The magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) power generation is one of the examples of a new unique method of power generation. The other non-conventional methods of power generation may be such as solar cells, fuel cells, thermo-electric generator, thermionic converter, solar power generation, wind power generation, geo-thermal energy generation, tidal power generation etc. This paper elucidates about Different Energy sources, why we are going for non-conventional energy sources, Different non-conventional energy sources & comparison between them, and implementation of best non-conventional source of energy the Gravitational Energy.
INTEGRATED WIND, SOLAR, AND ENERGY STORAGE: DESIGNING PLANTS WITH A BETTER GENERATION PROFILE AND LOWER OVERALL COST.
Collocating wind and solar generation with battery energy storage is a concept garnering much attention lately. An integrated wind, solar, and energy storage (IWSES) plant has a far better generation profile than standalone wind or solar plants. It results in better use of the transmission evacuation system, which, in turn, provides a lower overall plant cost compared to standalone wind and solar plants of the same generating capacity. IWSES plants are particularly suitable for regions that have set high targets for wind and solar generation but have limited land available for project development
AN IMPROVED ADAPTIVE P&O TECHNIQUE FOR TWO STAGE GRID INTERFACED SPVECS.
This work presents an improved perturb and observe with adaptive perturbation size (IAP&O) algorithm for harnessing maximum power from a double stage solar photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion system (SPVECS) interfaced to a three phase distribution grid. Among various MPPT (Maximum Power Point Technique) techniques, the P&O method is most popular technique in industrial and domestic applications because of its simplicity. However, its performance is affected from drift problem and it is increased in quick changes of environmental conditions. In this double stage SPVECS, a VSI (Voltage Source Inverter) to a three phase distribution grid is deployed. To ensure the quality of power as per an IEEE-519 std. on harmonics, it has maintained the power quality norms in three phase distribution feeder network. Therefore, to feed the real power to the three phase distribution network and to maintain the sinusoidal grid currents, this system performs well. The Matlab/Simulink is utilized for simulation purpose and the performance of proposed system is examined in different environmental situations on an experimental prototype, which is established in the laboratory.
ENERGY STORAGE CONTROL FOR DISPATCHING PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER
The strong growth of the solar power generation industry requires an increasing need to predict the profile of solar power production over a day and develop highly efficient and optimized stand-alone and grid-connected photovoltaic systems. Moreover, the opportunities offered by Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) coupled with PV systems require an ability to forecast the load power to optimize the size of the entire system composed of PV panels and storage devices. This paper presents a sizing and control strategy of BESSs for dispatching a photovoltaic generation farm in the 1-hour ahead and day-ahead markets. The forecasting of the solar irradiation and load power consumption is performed by developing a predictive model based on a feedforward neural network trained with the Levenberg-Marquardt back-propagation learning algorithm.
OPERATION OF A GRID-TIED CMC BASED ON A SIC FORWARD SST UNDER UNBALANCED PV POWER GENERATION
The application of Cascaded Multilevel Converters (CMC) in large-scale photovoltaic plants connected to the utility grid has many advantages, such as the absence of sinusoidal filters and line-frequency transformers. Improved overall performance under partial shading conditions is possible due to the distribution of arrays among a large number of maximum power point trackers. In this situation, although the cells operate at different power levels, the three-phase currents injected into the point of common coupling must be balanced. A suitable control technique is required to achieve this goal. This paper presents a complete algorithm to handle three-phase power balance and single-phase power harvesting simultaneously. Simulation results assuming a medium-voltage system connected to a typical utility-grid illustrate the dynamic and steady-state performance capability of the proposed strategy. Experimental results from a low-voltage, solid state transformer-based, three-cell prototype are also included.
A NOVEL NON-ISOLATED Z-SOURCE DC-DC CONVERTER FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS
Pollution problems caused by fossil fuels has lead more investigations on renewable energy systems. Photo-voltaic cells and fuel-cells output low level voltage than required, therefore, high gain dc-dc converters are used to boost this low voltage. The Z-source converter can be employed as dc-dc converter to boost the PV panel voltages. It also offers other advantages, such as clamped switched voltage, high voltage gain, isolation of energy source from the load and positive polarity for output voltage. Therefore, this is a good choice for high step-up applications. This paper presents analysis of a novel high stepup z-source based dc-dc converter that has higher voltage gain than the z-source converter. Furthermore, high efficiency, low device voltage stress and wide voltage gain range make it a good candidate for photo-voltaic and high voltage step-up applications. The proposed dc-dc converter is evaluated experimentally for converting 24 V DC input to 300 V DC output at 100 W and to validate the simulation results.
INTELLIGENT CONTROL SCHEME FOR SPV-WIND-BESS BASED MICRO GRID
This article proposes a novel control scheme for efficient control of solar photovoltaic (SPV), wind energy system (WES) and battery energy storage system (BESS) based micro-grid. Using this control scheme the voltage in the main DC bus is kept constant irrespective of the load or weather condition. When power requirement at load side is less than the energy produced by both SPV and WES combined, the batteries are charged and in case of any imbalance or excess energy required in case of peak load conditions the BESS provides the remaining energy. The dc voltage thus obtained is converted into ac voltage by using a three-phase inverter, which is operated with sinusoidal pulse width modulation (PWM) technique. The system is designed and tested in MATLAB-SIMULINK and simulated results are demonstrated to validate the concept and design. On account of simulation results, it has been established that the performance of the controllers is quite satisfactory in both transient and steady states.
DESIGN OF A REAL-TIME, LOW-COST MONITORING SYSTEM FOR HYBRID SOLAR-WIND POWER GENERATION SYSTEM
This paper presents the project of a real-time low-cost monitoring system for the hybrid solar-wind electric power generation system, installed at the Fluminense Federal University. The objective of the system presented is to monitor the electrical magnitudes of the hybrid system, allowing the user to see in real time the operating status of the hybrid system, in order to obtain information on generation of the photovoltaic and wind system, as well as the consumption of the loads. Considering the low cost of implementing the monitoring system, we chose to use the free prototyping platform Arduino. The Arduino board collects the reading of the voltage and current sensors, processes and obtains power and energy generation information from each of the sources, as well as the battery and the loads connected to the hybrid system. Once the quantities to be monitored have been processed by the Arduino microcontroller, it sends them to the computer via a USB port and through the execution of a macro in Excel, the data is then imported into an spreadsheet. A small-scale model of the hybrid system was developed to establish a proof of concept of the proposed monitoring system
SOLAR POWER GENERATION FORECASTING WITH A LASSO-BASED APPROACH
The smart grid (SG) has emerged as an important form of the Internet of Things. Despite the high promises of renewable energy in the SG, it brings about great challenges to the existing power grid due to its nature of intermittent and uncontrollable generation. In order to fully harvest its potential, accurate forecasting of renewable power generation is indispensable for effective power management. In this paper, we propose a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO)-based forecasting model and algorithm for solar power generation forecasting. We compare the proposed scheme with two representative schemes with three real world datasets. We find that the LASSO-based algorithm achieves a considerably higher accuracy comparing to the existing methods, using fewer training data, and being robust to anomaly data points in the training data, and its variable selection capability also offers a convenient tradeoff between complexity and accuracy, which all make the proposed LASSO-based approach a highly competitive solution to forecasting of solar power generation.
A DC-DC BOOST CONVERTER WITH A WIDE INPUT RANGE AND HIGH VOLTAGE GAIN FOR FUEL CELL VEHICLES
In fuel cell vehicles, the output voltage of the fuel cell source is typically much lower than the voltage required by the DC bus and also this output voltage drops significantly as the output current increases. In order to match the output voltage of the fuel cell source to the DC bus voltage, a new DC-DC boost converter with a wide input range and high voltage gain is proposed to act as the required power interface, which reduces voltage stress across the power devices and operates with an acceptable conversion efficiency. A prototype rated at 300W/400V has been developed and the maximum efficiency of the proposed converter was measured as 95.01% at 300W. Experimental results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed converter.
REFERENCE SUB MODULE-BASED CAPACITOR MONITORING STRATEGY FOR MODULAR MULTILEVEL CONVERTERS
The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is attractive for medium or high-power applications because of the advantages of its high modularity, availability, and high power quality. Reliability is one of the most important challenges for the MMC consisting of a large number of submodules (SMs). The capacitor monitoring is one of the important issues in the MMC. This paper proposed a reference submodule (RSM)-based capacitor monitoring strategy for the capacitance estimation in the MMC, where the capacitances in the monitoring SMs can be estimated based on the capacitor voltage relationship between the RSM and the monitoring SMs. The proposed monitoring strategy does not rely on the information of all capacitor voltage and current, which effectively simplifies the algorithm for capacitance estimation. The simulation studies with the time-domain professional tool PSCAD/EMTDC are conducted and a down-scale MMC prototype is also tested in the laboratory with the proposed capacitor monitoring strategy. The study results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed capacitor monitoring strategy.
NEW EMI MODEL WITH THE SAME INPUT IMPEDANCES AS CONVERTER
Among the already developed electromagnetic interference (EMI) models, there are the three-terminal models based on the estimation of impedances. These models are very interesting. Compared to the other models, they have the advantage of predicting conducted interference generated by the filtered electronic devices. In this paper, in order to contribute to this type of modeling, a new EMI model for power converters is proposed. This model has the same input impedances as the converter, which allows predicting filtered and unfiltered conducted interferences in a more accurate manner. It is based on estimating input impedances of the actual converter, using a new method developed analytically. This method requires only off-line measurements, making the model easy to identify and can be applied even to high-power converters. Experimental illustrations are also included to verify the validity of the proposed model. Comparison between measured and predicted results with and without EMI filter shows that the model provides adequate prediction of the EMI feature for power-switching converters.
TRANSFORMER-LESS BIDIRECTIONAL PWM CONVERTER INTEGRATING VOLTAGE MULTIPLIER-BASED CELL VOLTAGE EQUALIZER FOR SERIES-CONNECTED ELECTRIC DOUBLE-LAYER CAPACITORS.
In the traditional energy storage systems consisting of series connected energy storage cells such as electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), not only a bidirectional PWM converter but also a cell voltage equalizer is required. The system is prone to complexity as two converters (i.e., the bidirectional converter and cell voltage equalizer) are separately necessary. This paper proposes the transformer-less bidirectional PWM converter integrating the voltage multiplier-based cell voltage equalizer. An inductor in a conventional bidirectional PWM converter is replaced with series-connected inductors in the proposed converter in order to generate square wave voltage with an arbitrary amplitude, by which the voltage multiplier is driven. The charge-discharge cycling test for nice EDLCs connected in series was performed using the proposed integrated converter from a voltage-imbalanced condition. The voltage imbalance was gradually eliminated while charge-discharge cycling, demonstrating the integrated functions.
ENERGY FEEDBACK CONTROL OF LIGHT-LOAD VOLTAGE REGULATION FOR LLC RESONANT CONVERTER
LLC resonant converter would have light-load voltage regulation problems due to the effect of parasitic capacitances in high frequency range. In this paper, an energy feedback control method is proposed to improve the light-load regulation capacity by using synchronous rectifiers (SRs). The SR bridges are controlled ahead of the primary inverter bridges to deliver the energy from load to source, reducing the output voltage independent of the load. Then the desired voltage can be achieved even in no load conditions by regulating the operation time of the energy feedback mode. The gain, voltage ripple and efficiency performances of the proposed control method are discussed based on the precise analysis and accurate model of the converter. Moreover, the light-load operations of the LLC resonant converter are analyzed deriving the critical load condition. Finally, the proposed control method is verified by the experiments of a 12V/8A LLC resonant converter prototype.
A NOVEL MULTILEVEL HIGH GAIN MODIFIED SEPIC DC-TO-DC CONVERTER FOR HIGH VOLTAGE/LOW CURRENT RENEWABLE ENERGY APPLICATIONS
In this paper a non isolated, non inverting, single switch, high gain modified SEPIC with voltage multiplier dc-to-dc converter is proposed. The proposed circuit is a combination of modified version of conventional SEPIC converter and voltage multiplier unit. The voltage gain of proposed converter is increases to n time of (1/ (1-D) by extending the voltage multiplier unit by n time. The advantage of proposed topology is reduced voltage stress across switching device, which results into better efficiency and voltage gain is increased without disturbing the main circuit. In this paper, the detail operation of proposed converter with mathematical analysis is done. The proposed converter is simulated in MatLab R2016a for three level with 120W power. The mathematical analysis and simulation results validates the functionality of proposed converter.
PULSE SKIPPING MODULATION METHOD FOR MULTIPLE INPUT BUCK BOOST CONVERTER.
Energy harvesting and wireless power transfer to power small, low-power and autonomous devices have recently attracted numerous research studies. Due to the lack of energy supplies, DC to DC converters with multiple inputs have been studied to harvest different energy sources simultaneously. In this paper, a proposed pulse skipping modulation method is used to control a multiple input buck boost converter with the output power from 7 μW-700 μW. The DC to DC converter can achieve a high efficiency of 83.3% at 23.6 μA load current, and the highest efficiency is up to 89.1% at 255 μA current load. The control method offers the flexibility and adaptability in maximum power point tracking and input power contribution. The paper investigates a completed energy harvesting system including a solar cell and 915 MHz RF source and power management circuits.
USE OF MPPT TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE THE ENERGY PAY-BACK TIME IN PV SYSTEMS.
Photovoltaic (PV) energy is a free energy used as an alternative to fossil fuel energy. However, PV system without maximum power point tracking (MPPT) produces a low, unstable power and with a long energy payback time (EPBT). This paper presents an innovative artificial neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) MPPT technique that could extract maximum power from a complete PV system and with a lessened energy payback time (EPBT). To confirm the effectiveness of the ANFIS algorithm, its results was compared with the results of PV system using Perturb&Observe (P&O) technique, non-MPPT technique, combination of artificial neural network and support vector machine as ANN-SVM technique and using Pretoria city weather data as case studies. Results show that ANFIS-MPPT yielded the best result and with the lowest EPBT.
INTERLEAVED CUK CONVERTER WITH REDUCED SWITCH CURRENT
DC to DC converters are for generally used for intermediate power conversion processes in switched mode power supplies, battery chargers, electric vehicles, solar and wind power plants etc. The quality of current is a general issue when step-up converters are employed for power conversions. Cuk converter with inductors on both input and output sides reduces ripple on currents and improves the quality of source current. A Traditional Cuk Converter (TCC) is simulated and validated experimentally. But sharing of currents in inductors reduces ripples on source current further and also reduces peak current of the switch, improve the quality of input power of converters. Hence an Interleaved Cuk Converter (ICC) is proposed in this paper to share the source current in input inductors and to trim down the switch peak current hence to shrink ripples on source current. A Phase Shifted PWM (PSPWM) scheme is used in ICC and the switches are operated below 50% duty ratio to cancel the ripples on source and output sides. From the simulation and experimental results of TCC and ICC, it is observed that ICC reduces peak current of the switch, hence device rating and also delivers output power with better efficiency & improved transient performance. A modification on proposed ICC also provides boost operation with reduction in peak current of the switch.
POWER MANAGEMENT OF A HYBRID WIND GAS ELECTROLYZE MICRO GRID
The paper describes a power management strategy of a standalone hybrid wind small gas turbine electrolyze power system to supply a remote village with electricity. The electrical system consists of a variable speed wind turbine coupled to a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) through a gear box, a diode bridge rectifier, a dc-to-dc boost converter and a current controlled voltage source inverter. The wind energy system is considered as the main power source. Output power from PMSG is first converted to DC, `boosted’, inverted then it is fed to the grid. The maximum power is always assured thanks to the P&O MPPT algorithm. The electrolyze system is a backup source where the excess of electrical power is stored. However, when wind speeds fall below the minimum required a gas turbine system is activated to immediately produce the desired electricity. The proposed power management algorithm of the whole hybrid system is simulated by using MATLAB/SIMULINK® for various wind velocities. The simulation results obtained showed that the load demand is satisfied although wind speeds fall below the minimum required.
PARALLEL SOFT SWITCHING CONVERTER WITH FEWER SWITCH COUNTS
A parallel direct current (DC) to DC converter is presented for medium power applications. The studied converter includes three half-bridge circuits with sharing two power switches at high-voltage side to reduce switch counts. Three half-bridge circuits are connected by primary-parallel and secondary-parallel to reduce the current stress of power devices at low-voltage side. Each half-bridge circuit supplies one-third of the total power to the output load. Asymmetric pulse-width modulation is employed to generate the gated signals of the switches and regulate the output voltage. Based on the resonant behaviour of the output capacitance of power switches and the leakage inductance of the transformer, the zero-voltage switching turn-on of power switches can be achieved. Current doubler rectifier topology is adopted at the low-voltage side to have the advantage of low ripple current at output capacitor. A laboratory prototype with 1440 W power is built to verify theory analysis and effectiveness of the studied converter.
ADAPTIVE AND ROBUST STABILIZATION OF FLYBACK POWER CONVERTERS WITH DIGITAL CONTROL
DC to DC power converters are electrical system used to adapt an input voltage source to an output load which may change with unknown variations but bounded. We propose an observer-based control strategy with global asymptotic stability property that uses a parameter estimate to compensate input sources and output load variations. The demonstrator of this control strategy is done with a 30W Flyback Converter. This paper shows a physical real time implementation of the control algorithm using C2000-familly processor from Texas Instrument.
DESIGN OF A HIGH-EFFICIENCY WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER SYSTEM WITH INTERMEDIATE COILS FOR THE ON-BOARD CHARGERS OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES.
In this paper, a high efficiency inductive wireless power transfer system for the on-board chargers of electric vehicles is proposed. In order to improve the power transfer efficiency, the proposed system adopts two additional intermediate coils with resonant capacitors, which increases the effective magnetizing impedance between the transmitter and receiver coils with no ferrites. The resonant tank of the proposed system is designed to operate the converter as a current source and as a voltage source at two different frequencies to implement the constant current (CC) mode charge and constant voltage (CV) charge, respectively. Since the proposed converter operates at a fixed frequency in each mode of charge operation, full soft switching of all the switching devices is possible and the zero phase angle condition can be achieved in both the CC and CV mode operations. A theoretical analysis based on a Thevenin model to come up with a suitable design for the battery charger and its closed-loop controller is presented and its superior performance is demonstrated by experimental results. A 6.6 kW prototype is implemented with a 200 mm air gap to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. Experimental results show that the dc to dc conversion efficiency of the proposed system is 97.08% at 3.7 kW of output power in the CV mode charge.
DISTURBANCE OBSERVER BASED FUZZY SLIDING MODE CONTROL OF PV GRID CONNECTED INVERTER
In this paper, a disturbance observer based fuzzy sliding mode control (DOBFSMC) strategy is proposed for a single-phase PV grid-connected inverter. A disturbance observer is designed to estimate the system uncertainties in real time and a sliding mode controller that is designed with the output information of the disturbance observer is employed to control the output voltage of the DC-AC inverter, a fuzzy system is used to approximate the upper bound of the observation error between the actual disturbance and its observation value in order to improve the performance of the control system. The inverter has strong robustness since the disturbances can be adaptively compensated and the chattering is greatly reduced since the switching gain can be very small for the upper bound of observation error is estimated by the fuzzy system. Finally, simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE OF GRID-CONNECTED VOLTAGE-SOURCED INVERTERS UNDER UNBALANCED NETWORK CONDITIONS USING A FUZZY SLIDING MODE- BASED APPROACH.
This paper proposes the application of fuzzy sliding mode controller for grid-connected voltage-sourced inverters (VSIs) under unbalanced network conditions. To realize this control scheme, sliding mode controller (SMC) is modified by adding fuzzy function to determine reference components of the VSI voltage in the stationary reference frame. Integration of fuzzy function into SMC achieves several advantages including suppression of chattering phenomenon, high tracking precision, and desirable robustness to uncertainties. Moreover, this control strategy requires neither phase locked loop function (PLL) nor synchronous coordinate transformation, which results in simple implementation. Simulation results for two cases of unbalanced grid voltages including non-identical amplitudes and unbalanced phase angles for three phase voltages are presented. The VSI is first controlled by modified SMC with power compensation feedbacks and then by fuzzy SMC. The results confirm that in comparison with modified SMC with power compensation feedbacks, employing fuzzy SMC not only leads to remarkable reduction of active and reactive power pulsations, but also decreases total harmonic distortion of the grid currents.
ON-LINE FAILURE DIAGNOSIS OF GRID-CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS BASED ON FUZZY LOGIC.
Accurate identification of failures in photovoltaic (PV) systems, which can result in energy loss or even serious safety issues, is crucial for ensuring reliability of the installations and the guaranteed lifetime output. The scope of this paper is to present the development of failure detection routines (FDRs) that operate on acquired data-sets of grid-connected PV systems in order to diagnose the occurrence of failures. The developed FDRs comprise of a failure detection and classification stage. Specifically, the failure detection stage was based on a comparative statistical approach between the measured and simulated electrical measurements. In parallel, fuzzy logic inference was performed in order to analyse the failure pattern and classify accurately the occurred fault. The fuzzy rule based classification system (FRBCS) models were constructed for each failure through a supervisory learning process, trained with continuous samples split in a 70:30 % train and test set approach of acquired data-sets which included the feature patterns exhibited during normal and faulty operation. The results obtained by emulating three failure patterns (partial shading, inverter shutdown and bypass diode failure), showed that the developed FDRs were capable of detecting accurately the faults upon their occurrence by signifying detectable discrepancies through the daily statistical comparisons of the measured and simulated electrical parameters. Finally, the developed classification models showed high accuracy of classifying each failure occurrence within the test set used for benchmarking. Specifically, the success rate obtained with the FRBCS models was 100 %, 96.9 % and 96.53 %, when classifying the inverter shutdown failure, bypass diode fault and partial shading, respectively.
FUZZY PREDICTIVE DTC OF INDUCTION MACHINES WITH REDUCED TORQUE RIPPLE AND HIGH PERFORMANCE OPERATION
This paper proposes an enhanced strategy for direct torque control (DTC) combining artificial intelligent (AI) and predictive algorithms. The advantages of this merge are in the solution of closed-loop controlled induction machine (IM) problems. Predictive DTC (P-DTC) methods reduce the high torque ripple and improve the performance at both starting condition and low mechanical speed operation. However, P-DTC depends on the IM parameter’s knowledge. The approach here is the introduction of fuzzy logic control with dynamic rules based on the P-DTC law’s to reduce the parameter dependency and improve the performance of P-DPC. Additional comparative performance study of eight modulation strategies under the proposed fuzzy-predictive DTC (FP-DTC) is conducted. It results that the space-vector modulation (SVM) is the most suitable scheme with the best combination of criteria such stator current total harmonic distortion, switching losses and dynamic behavior. The parameter dependency of the FP-DTC is tested by a sensitivity analysis which corroborates the robustness of the proposed control. For verification purposes, simulations of the DTC, P-DTC, and FP-DTC were conducted and compared. Experimental results for the three controllers and two modulations (pulse width modulation and SVM) confirm the expected performance of the proposed control algorithm and modulation assessment study.
FAMILY OF MULTIPORT SWITCHED-CAPACITOR MULTILEVEL INVERTERS FOR HIGH FREQUENCY AC POWER DISTRIBUTION
This paper proposes a family of multiport switched-capacitor multilevel inverter (SCMLI) topologies for high frequency AC power distribution. It employs asymmetric DC voltage sources with a common ground which makes it ideal to be employed in renewable energy farms and modern electric vehicles. The proposed family of step-up SCMLI attains higher number of output voltage steps with optimum component count in comparison to several existing topologies. The problem of capacitor voltage balancing is solved as the capacitors are inherently charged to a finite voltage every half cycle. In-depth study on two staircase modulation strategies, namely selective harmonic elimination and minimum total harmonic distortion scheme is presented with study on the variation of switching angles and THD with modulation indices under both schemes. Working principle and analysis are presented for the proposed family of topologies. Simulation outcomes are validated with experimental results for various staircase modulation schemes with equal and unequal output voltage waveform steps.
A NEW APPROACH TO FAULT DIAGNOSIS OF MULTILEVEL INVERTER
To handle the fault diagnosis of multilevel inverter, a new approach based on hybrid intelligent algorithms has been proposed in this paper. Firstly, the wavelet packet transform (WPT) is applied for the multi-scale wavelet packet decomposition of the fault signal, and the fault feature vector is extracted from the reconstructed wavelet packet energy. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA) is employed to extract the principal information with lower dimension. Finally, the BP neural network (NN) is used for the fault diagnosis and identification. The simulation results show that the proposed method is more accurate for the fault diagnosis of multilevel inverter than traditional methods and more robust to the noise of fault signals.
PV-FC HYBRID SYSTEM WITH MULTILEVEL BOOST CONVERTER FED MULTILEVEL INVERTER WITH ENHANCED PERFORMANCE
This paper presents a multilevel boost converter fed multilevel inverter for hybrid solar PV-FC systems. Previously conventional boost converters were used to step up the voltage obtained from sources. But recently these are replaced by different high step-up Boost Converters which can produce much higher output voltage than that of conventional boost converters (BC). But all these high step-up boost converters are meant for only particular output voltage. But in this present system a multilevel boost Converter (MLBC) is used which can step-up to any voltage just by adding capacitors and diodes. The power source consists of photo voltaic generator and PEM Fuel cell. Modified P&O MPPT algorithm is used to extract the maximum power from PV system. Both boost converters fed multilevel inverter and multi level boost converter fed multi level inverter systems are modeled, simulated and their results are compared. Simulation results indicate that MLBC system produces higher output power than normal BC system based MLI for the same input voltage from PV & FC sources and load resistance.
MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF 21 LEVEL CASCADE MODEL MULTILEVEL INVERTER
A new cascade model multilevel inverter for generating 21 voltage levels has been proposed in this paper. Results obtained from this model and conventional cascaded H-bridge (CHB) inverter are compared. To generate 21 – level output voltage by using CHB ten H-bridge modules are required and each module consists of four numbers of switching devices. Whereas the proposed cascade model has sub-multilevel inverter blocks, are connected in series. This topology results in reduction of installation area, cost and simple control system. The performance of both topologies was observed by MATLAB/SIMULINK.
DIGITAL IMPLEMENTATION OF SHE-PWM MODULATION ON FPGA FOR A MULTILEVEL INVERTER
This paper presents a digital implementation of the Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse-Width Modulation Technique (SHE-PWM) using a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) with its logical structure developed through the VHDL language. A theoretical study of harmonics elimination strategy is detailed and as experimental results are shown the gate signals provided by the FPGA, which validate the digital development of the technique together with simulation of that strategy. The technique is applied to a five level hybrid multilevel inverter based on the Half-Bridge and ANPC topologies.
GENERALIZED ADAPTIVE PHASE-SHIFTED PWM FOR SINGLE-PHASE SEVEN-LEVEL CASCADED H-BRIDGE MULTILEVEL INVERTERS
Cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverters have gained a significant popularity in medium to high power motor drive applications and grid-connected renewable energy systems in recent years. Under equal DC voltages, cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverters use phase-shifted pulse width modulation (PS-PWM) technique to generate the output voltage. However, under unequal DC voltages which may happen because of the renewable energy sources connected to front-end of the multilevel inverter, traditional PS-PWM method fails to achieve good output harmonics. In this paper, a frequency domain analysis of PS-PWM is presented. By using the analysis, a phase angle modification of traditional PS-PWM is introduced. The proposed method helps eliminate first order harmonics of triangular carrier frequency and its sidebands under randomly selected DC voltages and DC voltage fault conditions. Finally, simulation results for single phase seven- level cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter are presented to validate the good performance of the proposed method.
D-STATCOM: A STUDY ON THE NPC MULTILEVEL INVERTER AND CONTROL STRATEGIES
This paper confers the relativistic study and analysis on the characteristic of neutral point clamped multilevel inverter (NPCMLI) (three to eleven level) with fixed DC link voltage and with distinct pulse width modulation (PWM) competence, as a Distribution Static Compensator (D-STATCOM) which counterbalances the current harmonics, unbalanced load and reactive power in a typical three-phase three wire medium voltage distribution power system. The agility of the D-STATCOM depends upon the control strategy. The conventional control strategies like synchronous detection method (SDM), synchronous reference frame theory (SRFT) and instantaneous pq theory (IPQT) were availed to gauge the compensating currents for imparting optimum results in repressing harmonics originated from non-linear loads. The MATLAB simulation results were leveraged for comparative analysis and performance evaluation of NPCMLI at different levels with various control strategies.
HARDWARE DESIGN OF THREE PHASE VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER USING ARDUINO MICROCONTROLLER AND ITS HARMONIC ANALYSIS
This paper work aims at design and implementation of a three-phase Voltage Source Inverter. DC to AC Converter are widely used in the area of renewable energy and in Industrial Drives. Generally, Inverters are used in high power applications for driving Industrial based Motors. Speed Control of Induction Motor is widely done through three-phase Inverter and Inverter convert the DC input from the solar panel to the mains. Hence designing the cost-effective inverter with less harmonics has always been a challenge in the area of Power Converter. This paper explores the design methodology and focuses on designing a simple and cost-effective control circuit for a three-phase Voltage Source Inverter. The switching logic is implemented in a microcontroller (Arduino) and the driver circuit is designed using TLP350 (optocoupler). MATLAB/Simulink and Hardware Design of Three-phase Voltage Source Inverter for 120° mode has been done and it is use to drive 1H.P Three-phase Induction Motor. Designed Inverter was studied and its Harmonic Analysis was done and compare using power analyzer. Both the Hardware and Simulation of three-phase VSI has been explained, compared and is verified.
A UNIDIRECTIONAL SINGLE-STAGE THREE-PHASE SOFT-SWITCHED ISOLATED DC-AC CONVERTER
This paper presents a novel single-stage soft-switched high frequency link three-phase DC-AC converter topology. The topology supports unidirectional DC to AC power flow and is targeted for applications like grid integration of photovoltaic sources, fuel cell etc. The high frequency magnetic isolation results in reduction of system volume, weight and cost. Sine-wave pulse width modulation is implemented in DC side converter. Though high frequency switched, DC side converter is soft-switched for most part of the line cycle. The AC side converter active switches are line frequency switched incurring negligible switching loss. The line frequency switching of AC side converter facilitates use of high voltage blocking inherently slow semiconductor devices to generate high voltage AC output. In addition, a cascaded multilevel structure is presented in this paper for direct medium voltage AC grid integration. A detailed circuit analysis considering non-idealities like transformer leakage and switch capacitances, is presented in this paper. A 6kW three phase laboratory prototype is build. The presented simulation and experimental results verify the operation of proposed topologies.
EFFICIENCY ENHANCED LINEAR DC-DC CONVERTER TOPOLOGY WITH INTEGRATED DC-UPS CAPABILITY
Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems are used to buffer against input energy source disconnections. In most UPS systems associated with an AC input energy source, an AC-DC converter feeds an energy storage system such as a battery bank or a supercapacitor bank together with a DC to AC conversion systems to buffer against AC input supply failures. If the critical load is fed by a DC source, DC-UPS designs are introduced with high efficiency, less complexity, low cost and smaller size. Supercapacitor assisted low dropout (SCALDO) regulator is a novel DC-DC converter developed to achieve high efficiency in a linear regulator approach using a supercapacitor as a series dropper element in the series path of a linear regulator such as a LDO. The DC-UPS capability is a novel feature which can be integrated into the SCALDO regulator simply by oversizing the supercapacitor without using any additional hardware. This paper describes the conceptual background followed by experimental results of the DC UPS capability integrated SCALDO regulator using 12-5 V prototype.
MODIFIED (2/1-K) OUTPUT GAIN ĆUK DC-TO-DC CONVERTER CIRCUIT FOR RENEWABLE POWER APPLICATIONS
Renewable energy applications have become a focal point of most researches in recent years to achieve an eco-friendly atmosphere and mitigate the dangers posed by global warming and climate changes. A modified high gain DC-to-DC Ćuk converter using voltage lift technique is presented in this paper. The converter generates an amplified version of the input voltage through the inclusion of a switched capacitor topology. In perspective view, the resultant modified Ćuk circuit generates a voltage conversion ratio of twenty at duty ratio of 0.9 by using 3 inductors, 5 capacitors and 4 diodes. A detailed analytical analysis is validated by simulations conducted in Matlab/Simulink.
METRO TRAIN LINE VOLTAGE CONTROL: USING AVERAGE MODELING BIDIRECTIONAL DC-DC CONVERTER.
The new approach to energy management issues makes Energy Storage Systems an interesting subject for both researchers and industries. One of the most important consumers of electric energy in urban areas is electric railways (metro trains). Thanks to regenerative braking, there is possibility of reusing braking energy by storing and using it again in acceleration period. Designing, sizing, and controlling such system is still an open discussion. In this paper a new control strategy is proposed based on average modeling of the converter between energy storage and dc grid. The simulation in MATLAB-Simulink is presented, all overhead and metro train data are from Mashhad metro line, and as a result of the proposed control strategy, voltage regulation, energy saving and peak power shaving is obtained.
IMPLEMENTATION OF RECURRENT NEUROCONTROL ALGORITHM FOR TWO STAGES SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM.
A grid interactive photovoltaic generation system is developed in this work. A boost converter forms the initial stage and is used to obtain the maximum power from the PV array. It is controlled using an incremental conductance (INC) based algorithm. The second stage is a voltage source converter (VSC), which interfaces the PV system to the grid. A recurrent neurocontrol based algorithm is used to generate the switching pulses for the VSC. The solar energy conversion system (SECS) has the capabilities of harmonics reduction, reactive power compensation, unity power factor operation and grid currents balancing. The proposed system is validated under various operating conditions using simulation as well as experimental results
SPEED CONTROL OF SOLAR WATER PUMPING WITH INDIRECT VECTOR CONTROL TECHNIQUE.
This paper deals with a solar based indirect vector controlled induction motor drive(IMD) for water pumping system. The speed of IMD is estimated by taking stator current and rotor flux as a state variable. It consists of a solar photovoltaic (PV) array, boost converter, voltage source inverter (VSI) and a motor-pump assembly. In spite of atmospheric variation, maximum power point tracker (MPPT) based upon an incremental and conductance (I&C) algorithm tracks maximum power from solar PV array. The proposed system is designed and simulated in MATLAB/Simulink platform and speed control of IMD is demonstrated through simulated results.
NEUTRAL POINT CLAMPED MOSFET INVERTER WITH FULL-BRIDGE CONFIGURATION FOR NON-ISOLATED GRID-TIED PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM.
Existing nonisolated full-bridge neutral point clamped (NPC) inverters for a single-phase grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) system have limitations such as shoot-through and low European Union (EU) efficiency. In order to address these limitations, an NPC superjunction MOSFET nonisolated inverter with full-bridge configuration (NIIFBC) is proposed in this paper. This inverter reduces the possibility of shoot-through, thereby improving the reliability of the grid-tied PV system. It controls the grid current by energizing two coupled inductors individually during positive and negative half-grid cycles. This obviates the possibility of reverse recovery loss in switches due to their body diodes. Furthermore, two external silicon carbide diodes of a clamping branch cause negligible reverse recovery loss in switches besides a constant common-mode voltage. Therefore, the main claims of NIIFBC are low leakage current, high EU efficiency, and reliability. A generalized leakage current model for the proposed inverter is developed. In order to validate the veracity of the model and the claims of NIIFBC, a 1-kW prototype is designed and developed. The experimental results of NIIFBC validate the claims made by the authors. Its performance comparison with the existing nonisolated full-bridge inverters is given. Furthermore, a variant circuit of NIIFBC operating at nonunity power factor is proposed
A PERFORMANCE INVESTIGATION OF A FOUR-SWITCH THREE-PHASE INVERTER-FED IM DRIVES AT LOW SPEEDS USING FUZZY LOGIC AND PI CONTROLLERS.
This paper presents a speed controller using a fuzzy-logic controller (FLC) for indirect field-oriented control (IFOC) of induction motor (IM) drives fed by a four-switch three-phase (FSTP) inverter. In the proposed approach, the IM drive system is fed by an FSTP inverter instead of the traditional six-switch three-phase (SSTP) inverter for cost-effective low-power applications. The proposed FLC improves dynamic responses, and it is also designed with reduced computation burden. The complete IFOC scheme incorporating the FLC for IM drives fed by the proposed FSTP inverter is built in MATLAB/Simulink, and it is also experimentally implemented in real time using a DSP-DS1103 control board for a prototype 1.1-kW IM. The dynamic performance, robustness, and insensitivity of the proposed FLC with the FSTP inverter-fed IM drive is examined and compared to a traditional proportional-integral (PI) controller under speed tracking, load disturbances, and parameters variation, particularly at low speeds. It is found that the proposed FLC is more robust than the PI controller under load disturbances, and parameters variation. Moreover, the proposed FSTP IM drive is comparable with a traditional SSTP IM drive, considering its good dynamic performance, cost reduction, and low total harmonic distortion (THD).
A THREE-LEVEL, T-TYPE, POWER ELECTRONICS BUILDING BLOCK USING SI-SIC HYBRID SWITCH FOR HIGH-SPEED DRIVES
This paper presents the design and implementation of a 100 kW three-level T-type (3L-T 2 ), single-phase power electronics building block (PEBB). The PEBB features switching power devices with associated gate drivers, DC-link capacitors and interconnection busbar. A hybrid switch (HyS), which includes a Si IGBT and a SiC MOSFET in parallel, forms the switching power device in the PEBB. An low-inductive multi-layer laminated busbar was designed to have symmetrical current commutation loops. A major contribution is that this is achieved while no three-level T-type power module was used. A loop inductance of 29 nH was achieved which is lower than the existing state-of-the-art three-level designs in literature. The fabricated prototype PEBB achieves a specific power density of 27.7 kW/kg and a volumetric power density of 308.61 W/in 3 . Single-phase operation of the PEBB has been demonstrated at the switching frequency of 28 kHz.
ASSET MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR POWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS IN TRANSMISSION NETWORKS: APPLICATION TO HVDC AND FACTS DEVICES
The urgency for an increased capacity boost bounded by enhanced reliability and sustainability through operating cost reduction has become the major objective of electric utilities worldwide. Power electronics have contributed to this goal for decades by providing additional flexibility and controllability to the power systems. Among power electronic based assets, high-voltage dc (HVdc) transmission systems and flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS) controllers have played a substantial role on sustainable grid infrastructure. Recent advancements in power semiconductor devices, in particular in voltage source converter based technology, have facilitated the widespread application of HVdc systems and FACTS devices in transmission networks. Converters with larger power ratings and higher number of switches have been increasingly deployed for bulk power transfer and large scale renewable integration-increasing the need of managing power converter assets optimally and in an efficient way. To this end, this paper reviews the state-of-the-art of asset management strategies in the power industry and indicates the research challenges associated with the management of high power converter assets. Emphasis is made on the following aspects: condition monitoring, maintenance policies, and ageing and failure mechanisms. Within this context, the use of a physics-of-failure based assessment for the life-cycle management of power converter assets is introduced and discussed.
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF POWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS IN WIND TURBINE SYSTEM
Wind power generation is experiencing a tremendous growth over the past few decades in terms of the individual turbine size as well as the total installed capacity. Power electronics has played a significant role in bringing about this change as they are a technical solution to wind turbine’s electrical difficulties. This paper analyses the need for power electronic converters in wind turbine systems. Nowadays, the proportion of power integrated into the grid is accelerating at a very fast pace. A grid fault might lead to a decline in the voltage (dip) resulting in an extensive tripping of the wind turbines leading to voltage instabilities and blackouts. To ensure continuous operation, low voltage ride through (LVRT) requirements of the wind turbines must be met. LVRT is achieved by using energy storage devices. High voltage ride through prevents the occurrence of overvoltage conditions across the network by using a crowbar circuit arrangement across the DC link. In this paper, a 2MW wind turbine system (WTS) employing a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) connected to the network through a back-to-back power converter is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink. From the results, it can be observed that to meet the interconnection requirements of the grid such as voltage, frequency, power, harmonics, etc. with the wind turbine characteristics, it is essential to employ power converters. Control system on generator side converter is designed to control the speed of the PMSG to ensure Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) while the grid side converter control system controls the DC link bus voltage and the sinusoidal nature of the voltage and current given to the grid.
A HYBRID UP-PWM SCHEME FOR HERIC INVERTER TO IMPROVE POWER QUALITY AND EFFICIENCY
The Highly Efficient and Reliable Inverter Concept (HERIC) inverter is a cost-effective topology, which has low leakage currents and a relatively high efficiency. Thus, it is very suitable for transformerless PV system. However, with the reported modulation methods, it is difficult to simultaneously maintain high efficiency, good power quality, and reactive power injection of HERIC inverter. In this paper, a hybrid unipolar pulse width modulation (UP-PWM) scheme is thus proposed to achieve those performances. The hybrid scheme adopts the conventional UP-PWM in the case of generating the positive power. When generating the negative power, a modulation scheme, which only requires the operation of freewheeling switches, is specifically proposed. Additionally, in the region of the output voltage and current zero-crossing points (ZCP), an UP-PWM with modified dead time is introduced. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, simulations and experiments are performed on a 4-kW HERIC prototype with a 20-kHz switching frequency. The results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid UP-PWM method achieves a better performance in terms of reactive power injection than the conventional UP-PWM scheme, and a higher efficiency than the UP-PWM with dead time. In addition, the proposed UP-PWM scheme also enables a better power quality.
APPLICATION STUDY ON INDUCTION HEATING USING HALF BRIDGE LLC RESONANT INVERTER.
Nowadays, an induction heating has been a popular heating technique and used in various applications such as melting, heat treating, preheating for welding, brazing, soldering, curing, sealing and shrink fitting. It is the fast, efficient, precise, repeatable and non-contact technique for heating metals or other electrically-conductive materials. This paper aims to present the induction heating to half bridge LLC resonant inverter application. The analysis contains six components: transformer, full bridge rectifier, half bridge inverter, resonant tank, high frequency transformer, and coil. Furthermore, a PLL controller is used in the system. Basically, an induction power is supplied to the induction heating system in which an alternating current of a converter is delivered to a work piece. The convertor is LLC that is used in this analysis for improving its resonant. The work piece is 20-cm length and 9-mm diameter with 5-turn coil. In addition, it is heated for 60 seconds with temperature at 352 degree Celsius.
SOLAR PV BASED RESONANT INVERTER FOR INDUCTION COOKER.
This paper presents the investigation and analysis of induction cooker, using half bridge series resonant inverter connected in series with Thyristor controlled reactor(TCR). The supply to this inverter is given through the solar PV panel. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is applied for tracking the maximum solar energy. It is applied to the domestic induction heating operation which supplies medium frequency currents (20-100 kHz) to the inductor, which heats up the plate. The simulation of this topology is carried out in the MATLAB/SIMULINK platform.
OPERATION OF A BIDIRECTIONAL SERIES RESONANT CONVERTER WITH MINIMIZED TANK CURRENT AND WIDE ZVS RANGE.
Since that high-frequency isolated resonant converters are featured with low switching losses due to wide soft-switching operation range, to minimize the resonant tank current is able to enhance the overall system efficiency and reduce the component stresses as well. In this work, a bidirectional series resonant converter under phase-shifted modulation combined with a modified pulse-width modulation gating scheme is addressed. The modified pulse-width modulation gating scheme is helpful to keep more switches operating in zero-voltage switching at light load. According to the steady-state analysis with fundamental-harmonic approximation approach, a specified control strategy with minimum rms tank current based on three control dimensions is proposed in closed form. The validity of the proposed control strategy is verified through experimental tests. Compared with existing control strategies for minimum current operation, the proposed control strategy demonstrates comparable performance in depressing conduction loss and wider soft-switching range as well so that it is able to achieve high efficiency especially at light load.
DETECTING FAULTY SOLAR PANELS BASED ON THERMAL IMAGE PROCESSING
Recently, the solar power generation has attracted much attention and market is growing. Although it is more common than in the past, there is not enough specialist for maintenance of the solar panel. Because solar panels are exposed to the outdoor environment, frequent failures can occur. So, we propose a solar panel detection system using the drones, the thermal cameras, and the RGB cameras. We used the characteristics of the fault of solar panel in the thermal camera, and detected the position of the photovoltaic panel and the array using the RGB camera.
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