Solar energy is converted into electrical energy by photo-voltaic cells. This energy is stored in batteries during day time to be utilized during night time. This project deals with a controlled charging mechanism that avoids over charge, deep discharge and under /over voltage of the battery and load. In this project, a solar panel is used to charge a battery. A set of op-amps are used as comparators to continuously monitor the panel voltage, load current, etc. Indications are also provided by a green LED for fully charged battery while red LEDs are to indicate under charged, overloaded and deep discharge condition. The charge controller also uses a MOSFET as power semiconductor switch to ensure cut off the load in low battery or overload condition. A transistor is used to bypass solar energy to a dummy loadwhile the battery gets fully charged. This protects the battery from getting over charged. Furthermore, this project can be enhanced by using a microcontroller and a GSM modem to communicate the status of the system to a control room via SMS.
CHARGE AND LOAD PROTECTION IN SOLAR POWER MANAGEMENT